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Hace cosa de un año que celebramos nuestra jornada genealógica en la Fundación Casa de Ganaderos, con motivo del 800 aniversario de la institución.

Para todos aquellos que os perdisteis la jornada, aquí podéis conocer la historia de Casa de Ganaderos, por su archivero Armando Serrano.

LA CASA DE GANADEROS

        Es curioso y llamativo que muchos zaragozanos, y aragoneses conocen perfectamente la existencia de la Mesta castellana y a la vez casi todos ellos desconocen la existencia, historia o actividad económica actual de Casa de Ganaderos. Esto ha sido provocado en parte por la propia institución, encerrada en si misma durante más de cuatro décadas en el siglo anterior, y en parte también por el propio abandono de nuestra propia historia y tradición. Esto unido a la educación centralista recibida, sobre todo en las últimas generaciones, ha provocado que los aragoneses hayamos borrado de nuestra memoria histórica casi en su totalidad la existencia de esta institución.

         La realidad es que su historia, y parte de la de Zaragoza y Aragón, ha quedado salvaguardada en su archivo y por ello es ahora, en los últimos 15 años, cuando los investigadores se han lanzado a redactar valiosísimos trabajos de investigación.

         El origen de esta institución se remonta a los años medievales del esplendor del Reino de Aragón. El 18 de mayo de 1218 Jaime I el Conquistador firma un privilegio nombrando a Domingo de Montealteto Justicia de los Ganaderos de Zaragoza, otorgándole la jurisdicción civil y criminal en todos los asuntos relacionados con la ganadería.

         Nada nos dice de la Casa de Ganaderos o Cofradía de San Simón y San Judas (nombre con el que se la conocía en la Edad Media por ser estos sus Patronos), pero sólo once años después aparece ya un documento en el que nombra esta institución y aparece ya la figura del Justicia como cabeza de la organización de la misma. Era lógico pensar que si en 1218 nombra el rey al Justicia de Ganaderos, es porque este es la figura representativa de una organización ganadera ya formada.

         Es por esto que muchos pensamos que podemos fijar el nacimiento de la Casa de Ganaderos en 1218, 55 años antes que la creación de la Mesta de Castilla y como dato curioso, el creador de la Mesta, Alfonso X el Sabio estaba casado con una hija de Jaime I, con lo cual es posible que el rey castellano intentara dar una solución parecida a la dada por su suegro medio siglo antes.

         Desde los inicios la Casa va a controlar dos de los temas que más afectan a los ganaderos zaragozanos, la jurisdicción y los pastos. En el primero de lo casos el Justicia de Ganaderos tiene como hemos dicho anteriormente jurisdicción civil y criminal, y por tanto los ganaderos acudían a él en lugar de al Justicia de Aragón. El de Ganaderos tenía su propia horca, en el camino de San Gregorio (barrio del Cascajo) y sus sentencias se cumplían de inmediato (incluso la pena capital). Era tal su poder que en ocasiones entraba en conflicto con el Justicia de Aragón, pero nunca pudo éste entrometerse en los procesos sobre ganadería del Justicia de Ganaderos.

         En el caso de los pastos, desde un primer momento la Casa de Ganaderos ejerció la jurisdicción de los mismos y el cumplimiento de los privilegios de pasturas de los zaragozanos y enseguida podemos ver los desplazamientos hacia las vales pirenaicas o el Sistema Ibérico de Teruel.

         A partir de esas fechas la Casa de Ganaderos se convierte en un instrumento más del poder de la Ciudad de Zaragoza. Su servicio a la capital del reino le obligaba en ocasiones a enfrentarse al Rey, y obtener de éste una serie de privilegios que a la larga motivaron su pervivencia y le dieron un poder casi absoluto.

         Jaime I, Juan I, Jaime II, la Reina Doña María (esposa de Alfonso V) o Fernando el Católico, entre otros monarcas aragoneses intervienen, conceden o ratifican privilegios a la Casa de Ganaderos. Y toda esa documentación que generó la institución desde su creación es la que se ha conservado en el archivo.

         Realmente la figura más representativa de la Casa de Ganaderos era su Justicia, elegido entre los miembros de la Cofradía y que detentaba un poder jurisdiccional total durante todo sus mandato. Sus sentencias, incluido la pena capital, no eran recusables ante ningún órgano superior y su cumplimiento podía ser inmediato.

         Estos privilegios que le permitían ejercer su jurisdicción por todo el Reino, le llevaron a ser una figura temida y respetada fuera de nuestra Ciudad y en ocasiones su poder fue tal que otras ciudades de Aragón manifestaron su queja ante el monarca en las cortes aragonesas como las celebradas en Monzón en 1626 o 1646.

         El siglo XVIII, con la llegada de la nueva dinastía de los Borbones, va a suponer un cambio de la política real respecto a la cofradía aragonesa y provocaran el primer gran recorte al poder de la Casa de Ganaderos. Felipe V, conocedor del estado centralista francés, eliminó la independencia en la elección de Justicia, elegido por votación hasta ese momento entre los ganaderos de Zaragoza, y obligó que a partir de ese momento los Justicias fueran ratificados por la Real Audiencia, así como las sentencias de la jurisdicción criminal.

         El siglo XIX, superada la crisis social, humana y económica de la Guerra de la Independencia, llegó uno de los momentos claves para la continuidad de Casa de Ganaderos. Fernando VII, tras terminar la contienda, se encontró con una monarquía completamente arruinada, y se dirigió a los ganaderos zaragozanos y les ordenó que si querían mantener viva esta Institución deberían pagar un dinero por cada privilegio que les pudiera ratificar el monarca, todos excepto la jurisdicción civil, que volvía de nuevo a la corona. Los ganaderos de Zaragoza pagaron a Fernando VII, y a costa del dinero y de sacrificar la figura más representativa de la institución, el Justicia, en 1828 Fernando VII ratificó los privilegios de «uso de prados, yervas, pastos y aguas de todos los montes existentes en las Ciudades y pueblos del presente Reyno de Aragón».

         Esta confirmación no hizo más que abrir la Casa de Ganaderos a la modernidad, disuelta la Mesta en 1836, a partir de ese momento la Casa fue cambiando de nombre adaptándose a los tiempos y transformándose según los momentos económicos que le tocaba vivir. La Casa ha sido junta local, asociación, sindicato o cooperativa según avanzaba los tiempos y transformándose según la época.

         En estos momentos la Casa de Ganaderos es una cooperativa donde se agrupan más de 300 ganaderos de todo Aragón dedicada a comercializar corderos y difundir nuestro preciado Ternasco de Aragón, pero ese es otro capítulo de la historia de esta institución casi ocho veces centenaria.

         Como última prueba de la vitalidad de esta Institución, recientemente, a iniciado el proceso de informatización y digitalización del archivo de Casa de Ganaderos. Más de 500.000 imágenes que permitirán abrir una puerta de acceso a los investigadores y preservar la integridad del archivo. Cuando termine el proceso (2012-2013) convertirá el archivo de Casa de Ganaderos en uno de los archivos privados modélicos de España.

         Ya sólo nos queda como aragoneses conocer y difundir la historia de una institución que durante ocho siglos a formado parte de la historia de este país, y con su quehacer diario en la vigilancia y protección del ir y venir de nuestros rebaños por las cabañeras a ayudado a conformar la cultura del ovino y convertirla en una de las claves de la identidad aragonesa.

Por Armando Serrano Martínez

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AragónGen, 2015